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The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Umrah is an expiation for the time between it and the previous ‘Umrah’ and an accepted Hajj has no less a reward than Paradise”. (Narrated by al-Bukhari 1683, Muslim 1349).
The Prophet (pbuh) said: “He who performs Hajj and does not speak obscenely or commit evil then he returns just as the day his mother gave birth to him” (Narrated by Bukhaari, Ahmed, Nasai and Ibn Majah from Abu Hurairah).
The Prophet (pbuh) said: “There is no day on which Allah frees more of His slaves from Fire than the Day of Arafah.” (Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu’minin).
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was asked which deed is the best? He said, “Belief in Allah and His messengers. He was asked, then what? He said, Jihad for the sake of Allah. He was asked, then what? He said, Hajj Mabrour (an accepted Hajj).” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari 26).
Types (Nusuk) of Hajj are Three:
- Hajj Ifrad: The pilgrim pronounces intention to perform only Hajj.
- Hajj Qiran: The pilgrim pronounces niyyah (intention) of performing both Hajj and Umrah simultaneously with the same Ihram and actions like Tawaaf and others. Or the pilgrim pronounces Umrah first then adds intention of Hajj on it before starting Tawaaf. Actions to be done by Mufrid and Qarin are the same, but Qarin is under an obligation to offer an animal sacrifice while Mufrid is under no obligation to do so.
- Hajj Tamattu: The pilgrim pronounces intention to perform only Umrah during the Hajj months (Sahwwal, Dhul-Qidah and the first eight days of Dhul-Hejjah). The pilgrim performs Umrah and then abandons Ihram after Umrah. And all which was unlawful in the state of Ihram is now lawful such as usual garments and intercourse with the spouse until the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah arrives. On this day, the pilgrim pronounces intention from the place of residence in Makkah for the performance of the rites of Hajj.
(This type is the most recommended).
(For a man): Take off all the stitched garments to have a bath as you would do after sexual intercourse and perfume your head and beard with the best oil you can find –there is no harm in what remains of it after Ihram. Don’t perfume the Ihram garments.
Wear yourself from below the chest with white fabric (izar) and drape another piece over your two shoulders (ridaa) except in every Tawaaf, the right shoulder should be exposed.
(For a woman): Ihram is her customary stitched garments. She avoids wearing perfume or the type of dress which attracts attention. She isn’t abiden by a certain color.
Pray the prescribed prayer if its stated time is on. And then offer two Rakats (Units) of prayer as a Sunnah act of Ihram. (There is no harm if you don’t pray it).
Then if you ride the car, intend the Nusuk and then say according to your Nusuk:
1- If you want to perform Umrah only, you say: “Labbaika Umrah” which means: I intend to perform Umrah”.
2- If you want to perform Hajj only (Ifrad) you say: “Labbaika Hajjan”. Which means: “I intend to perform Hajj”.
3- If you want to perform Hajj and Umrah together in their actions, you say: “Labbaika Omratan Mutamattean biha ilal-Hajj” which means: “I intend to perform Hajj and Umrah”.
4- If you want to perform Hajj and Umrah in the actions of Hajj (Qiran), you say: “Labbaika Omratan wa Hajjan”.
There is no need to repeat these utterences three times but only one time is enough.
1. Each Nusuk (type) has its own benefit.
2. There are variances between them in intention, utterances and actions.
3. The best: Tamattu, then Ifrad, then Qiran.
4. For (Qiran): A female pilgrim needs it if she wants her Ihram as Mutamatt'eh and she couldn't accomplish her Umrah incase her menses comes as well as for the one who comes late and fears missing standing in Arafat;also, who is detained to enter the Holy House for any reason.
If you fear that anything may detain you from completing your rites due to sickness or regulation procedures, you can make your intention conditioned in state of Ihram by saying:
"Allaahumma Mahallee Haithu Habastanee"
which means: "O Allah my place is wherever you prevent me". But if you don't fear any thing, it is not permitted to make your intention conditioned. Its benefit is: If you are prevented by any obstacle, you are excused legally to terminate your Ihram and return and you are not charged with an expiation.
Then you start Talbiyah:
"Labbaika Allahumma, Labbaik, Labbaika laa shareeka laka labbaik. Innal-Hamda wanni'mata laka wal mulk La shareeka lak".
Which means: Here I am, O Allah, here I am, there is no partner for you, Here I am! Surely, all praise and blessings are for you and dominion is Yours. There is no partner for you.
A man raises his voice when saying it and a woman says it so that only one beside her may hear her).
Saying Talbiyah in groups are not permitted and each Muhrim makes Talbiyah alone and continues saying it till he/she reaches the Holy House.
The supplication: "Allahumma inni Urid-ul-Umrata fa yassirha li wataqabbalaha mini. Labbaika Allahuma labbaik, Labbaika la shareeka laka labbaik, Innal-Hamda wanni'mata laka wal mulk, La shareeka lak".
Which means: "O Allah, I intend to perform Umrah, so make it easy for me" Here I am for Umrah-here I am, oh Allah, here I am, there is no partner for you, there I am! Surely, all praise and blessings are for you, and dominion is yours. There is no partner for You. And
"Allahumma inni as'aluka ridhaka wal-Jannata waa'udhu bika min sakhatika wan nar".
Which means: "O Allah! I beseech You grant me Your pleasure and Paradise, and I seek your protection from Your Wrath and Hell-Fire". Saying such specific supplications is not necessary but you can say what you like. Also, praying on the prophet (pbuh) is not mentioned in this place.
It is permissible on the way to glorify Allah "Allahu Akbar" whenever you mount a hill and praise Allah whenever you descend in a valley.
Then you return to the General Talbiyah "Labbaika Allahumma labbaik"…etc. until you reach the Sacred House.
2- Go to the Holy Mosque for Tawaaf:
- When you approach the Holy Mosque say: "Allahu Akbar".
- Then cease Talbiyah and go to the Sacred House.
- When you enter the Sacred mosque, place your right foot and say "Bismillah wasalat wasalam Ala Rasul Allah Allahuma Ighfir Li Dhunoobi waftah li Abwaba Rahmateka". Which means: "In the name of Allah. May peace and blessings be upon Rasoolullah, O, Allah! Forgive my sins and open for me the gates of Your mercy". Or: "Aoudhu Biwajhika Al Azeem Wa Sultanika Al-Qadeem min Al-Shaytanir rajeem". Which means: "I seek refuge in Allah the Al-mighty, and in His noble countenance and in His eternal power from Satan the Rejected".
- Then head for the Hajr-Al-Aswad (the sacred Black Stone) to start Tawaaf (circling it). Touch it with your right hand and kiss it. If you can not kiss it, it is enough to touch it by your hand only. If you can't do so, touch it by a stick or another thing and don't kiss it. If it is not possible, make a sign towards it by your right hand without kissing it.
- You had better not push Mutamereen (visitors of the Holy Mosque) and crowd to get it. Keep the Kaaba on you left side. In the meantime, you should drape the upper cloth (Ridaa) over the left shoulder and leave right shoulder exposed which is called in Arabic (Idtiba). And say whenever you reach the Black Stone:
"Bismillahe wallahu Akbar". Or "Allahu Akbar" only. Which means: "In the name of Allah and Allah is the Greatest. " or" Allah is the Greatest".
- Move quickly in the first three rounds (in case it is easy. You may not to do so with the crowd); walk normally in the other four. This is for Tawaaf-ul-qudoom only.
Supplicate and say between the two Rukns (al-Rukn Al-Yamani and the Black Stone): "Rabbanaa atina fiddunyaa hassanatan wa fil akhirati hassanatan wa qinaa adhaban-naar wa adkhilnaal-jannata ma'al abrar, ya'Aziz ya Ghaffar ya Rabbal 'alamin". Which means: "Our Rabb! Grant us good in this world and hasanah in the Hereafter and protect us from the torment of the Fire.
Each time you pass the Black Stone say: "Bismillah wallahu Akbar". Which means: "In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest".
You can supplicate what you like during the rest of Tawaaf. Invoke to Allah or recite some verses of the Holy Quran…etc. There is no specific supplication for each round.
- Having completed the seven rounds, go to Maqam Ibrahim (Ibrahim Station) and recite:
"Wattakhidhu min maqami Ibraheem Musalla"
Which means: "And take the station of Ibrahim as a place of worship" and perform two Rakats (units) behind the Maqam (close to it if possible or at any place in the mosque). Recite after "Sura al-Fatihah" "Sura al-Kafirun". (say, "O disbelievers", in the first Rakat (unit) and Surah "Al-Fatiha and "Sura al-Ikhlas": "He is Allah (who is) One" in the second Rakat (unit). (There is no harm if you recite other Surahs).
- Go to Zamzam: Drink from it and praise Allah.
3- Proceed to As Safa for Sa'yi
Ascend to As Safa hill until you face the Ka'bah and raise your hands and glorify Allah (three times) and say:
"Laa ilaaha illaallahu wahdahu laa shareekalahu-lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu – wa huwa 'alaa kulli shai'in qadeer. Laa ilaaha illallahu wahdahu-anjaza wa'dahu wa nasara abdahu wa hazamal ahzaaba wahdahu". (three times). Which means: "there is no God but Allah, He has no partner, Sovereignty belongs to Him and praise too, He Fulfilled His promise, Helped His servant and routed the hosts, all Alone".
Then recite: "Inna as-safa wal-Marwata min sha'airillah faman Hajj-al-baita awi'tamara falajunahha 'alaihi an-yatawafa bihima, waman tatawwa'a khairan fainnallaha Shaakeran 'Alim."
Which means: "Behold! Safa and Mahwah are among the symbols of Allah. Whoever visits the Sacred House for pilgrimage or Umrah should walk to or fro between them. And if anyone obeys his own impulse to good, be sure that Allah is He who recognizes and knows" 2: 159. This verse is to be read at the first round only. It is preferable to start with before any Dhikr, and you may supplicate to Allah the way you like in this place and raise your hands.
Then descend towards Marwah till you reach the green signpost. Then walk fast till you reach the next green signpost. Then walk fast till you reach the next green signpost saying: "Rabbighfir warham watajawaz ama ta'alam innaka antal a'azzul akram"
"O Lord forgive and have mercy, verily you are the Most Mighty and Most Noble".
Walk at a normal pace before and after them. (Walking fast is only for men) (women are not permitted to run).
You may supplicate during Sa'yi what you please and there is no specific supplication for each round.
When you reach Marwah, do the same as you did in Safa except for reciting the above mentioned Sura. It is to be read at the first round only. Repeat the lap seven times.
(Going from As-Safa to Marwah is a lap and returning is another lap).
4- Shaving or Trimming:
- Upon completion the hasten (Sa'yi), have your head shaved or trimmed but shaving is preferable. If your coming to Makkah is very near to Al-Hajj period, in this case trimming is preferable in order to shave your head in Hajj. (A woman can cut a finger –tip length of her hair).
Remove your Ihram and resume your normal life.
In this way, you have performed full Umrah; if you want it separate or you want it for Hajj, in case you are Mutamatte But If you are Mufrid for Hajj or Qarin, you intend Tawaf- ul-qudum- it is Sunna- and Sa'yi for Hajj – is a fundamental rite-; keep in state of Ihram and don't remove it. Don't shave or trim till the 8th of Dhul Hijjah to complete the rest of Hajj actions.
Actions to be Done on the 8th Day of Dhul Hejjah:
- Staying overnight at Mena this day (from the sunset of the eighth day of the Dhul Hejjah until the near Fajr (dawn) of Arafa day appears).
If you are performing Hajj Tamattu, go into the state of Ihram morning or noon from the place where you are staying in Makkah. It is good for you to purify yourself by bathing, perfuming and wearing a two –piece unstitched clean white garment. And then intend for Hajj and say: "labbaika Hajjan". Which means: "I am here for Hajj". Then you say "Labbaika Allahumma Labbaika, Labbaika la Shareeka laka labbaik, innal Hamda Wanni'mata Laka Wal Mulk, Laa Shareeka Lak". Which means: "Here I am for Hajj- here I am, Oh Allah, here I am, there is no partner for you, Here I am! Surely, all praise and blessings are for you and dominion is yours. There is no partner for you". For Qarin and Mufrid, they are still in their previous state of Ihram. They start directly Talbiyah "Labbaika Allahumma Labbaik…etc". from the morning of the day.
- Leave for Mena in the morning and perform Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha prayers (Dhuhr, Asr and Isha are each shortened to two Rakats (units) only but are not combined). Then perform Fajr prayer of the ninth day.
- Soon after the sun rises leave for Arafat.
Actions to be Done on the 9th Day of Dhul Hejjah:
The standing (wuqoof) in Arafat
The standing (wuqoof) in Arafat is one of the most fundamental rites of Hajj and the prophet PBUH said:
"al Hajj Arafah". Which means: "Hajj is Arafah".
a) The best: from the afternoon till after the sunset.
b) The permissible: from the dawn of the 9th day till the down of the 10th day. If you have spent even a few minutes in Arafat, your Hajj is correct. But if your attendance occurs before the sunset only, you are charged for a compensatory animal. Even these minutes take place after sunset, you are not charged with an expiation, but you have missed sleeping in Muzdalefah. In this case, you are charged for an animal for Muzdalefah and not for Arafat.
Soon after the sunrise, leave for Arafat and perform Dhuhr and Asr prayers (combined and shortened during the time of Dhuhr with one Athan/Adhan and two Iqaamahs – and stay there until the sunset. Invoke Allah as much as you can and it is from Sunnah to face Al-Qibla during supplication and not facing the Mountain of Arafat. It is preferred to say this supplication: "Laa ilaaha illaallahu Wahdahu laa Shareeka lahu- lahul mulku wa lahul hamd- Wa huwa 'alaa kulli shai'en qadeer". Which means: "There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, the One without a partner. The domain and the praise are His, and He is powerful over everything".
All of Arafat is a place for standing. Ascending the mountain of Arafat in not permitted. It is preferable to invoke much supplication. It is not necessary to keep standing or say under the sun, you are free to sit and to be sheltered.
Leaving Arafat for Muzdalefah:
a) When the sun has set, go to Muzdalefah. When reaching it, pray Maghrib and Isha (combined and shortening the Isha prayer to two Rak'ah with one Adhan and two Iqamahs) before reclining and collecting pebbles.
b) Stay overnight in Muzdalefah to perform the prayer of Fajr (down prayer) and keep busy supplicating waiting for the brightness of the morning is widespread. (Sleeping in Muzdalefah is compulsory) but weak individuals and women are allowed to proceed to Mena at any time after midnight, after the moon has completely disappeared to avoid the crowd.
c) Collect seven pebbles for stoning the Jamarat – ul Aqaba (a stone pillar in Mena). Any place you collect pebbles from is permissible.
d) Leave for Mena before the sun rises.
Actions to be Done on the 10th Day of Dhul Hejjah:
- It is preferable to make Du'aa after Fajr till the brightness of the morning is widespread.
- Leave for Mena to stone the Jamrat – ul –Aqabah (a stone pillar in Mena) and slaughter an animal or go to Makkah to perform Tawaf-ul –Efaadhah. But shaving can be done in any place.
Stoning of Jamrat –ul – Aqabah: Stone the Jamrat –ul-Aqaba (it is the nearest one to Makkah) with seven consecutive pebbles glorifying Allah " Allahu Akbar" which means: "Allah is the Greatest" as you throw each pebble.
Slaughtering of Sacrifice: Slaughter the sacrificial animal (hady); eat some of it and distribute it among the needy. Slaughtering an animal is compulsory on Mutamatte and Qarin while for Mufrid it is preferred.
Shaving the head or Trimming: Have your head shaved or trimmed but shaving is better. (a woman can cut a finger tip length of her hair).
• If you have done stoning and shaving, you end the first phase of the state of Ihram (this is called the first Tahallul). It is also ok if you do two out of four e.g. stoning or shaving or Tawaaf and Sa'yi.
(Slaughtering is not included because it is not compulsory for all pilgrims). If you do these four things completely with slaughtering (if it were compulsory), you end the second phase of the state of Ihram (this is called the second Tahallul).
First Tahallul means: You can wear other clothing and do everything that was lawful before Ihram except physical contact with the spouse (with or without intercourse or kissing and so on).
Second Tahallul means: Everything that you were prohibited from (by Ihram) has been allowed for you even women (sexual intercourse).
Go to Makkah and perform Tawaaf–ul–Efaadhah (Tawaaf al-Hajj). If you have removed Ihram, circle in clothes you wear.
- Perform Sa’yi of Hajj:
If you are Mutamatte or Qarin and you did not perform the Sa'yi before with Tawaaf ul-Qudoom (the Tawaaf of Arrival), it is permissible to delay Tawaaf–ul–Efaadhah and the Sa'yi Hajj until the 13th day. But the state of Ihram can not be lifted without doing them.
Sleeping the days of Tashreeq in Mena:
(it is meant by sleeping here to spend the night – even a part f its time – in Mena whether awake or walking and it is not necessary to sleep).
Stoning Jamarat during the days of Tashreeq: (The way of stoning): After the decline of the sun, throw pebbles at the three Jamrats, starting from the smaller one (the furthest one from Makkah), the medium one and the biggest alternatively. Throw seven pebbles at each Jamrat, glorifying Allah "Allahu Akbar" with each throw and perform much du'a (supplicate) with raised hands after the smallest and medium Jamrat and don't stop after Jamrat–ul-Aqabah.
Sleeping in Mena these days, as it is mentioned on the 10th day.
If you complete stoning on the 12th, and you want to leave earlier, leave Mena before the sun sets. If the sun sets before you are able to depart, remain in Mena on the 13th day and stone the three Jamrats early afternoon of that day.
It is the final rite of Hajj.
If you want to go to your country, circle the Kaaba seven times (Tawaaf al Wadaa) (farewell Tawaaf) in your clothes. And you have to leave Makkah.
Otherwise if you stay, you have to repeat Tawaaf.
(A menstruating woman or a woman having postnatal discharge would be exempted from Tawaaf al Wadaa).
- Entering the state of Ihram.
- The Tawaaf.
- The Sa'yi.
- Wearing Ihram from Miqat.
- Shaving or Trimmning.
- Entering the state of Ihram.
- Standing in Arafat.
- Tawaaf (Tawaaf-ul-Efaadhah).
- The Sa'yi (hasten between the hills of Safa and Marwah).
* Missing any of these pillars, his/her Hajj will not be completed until he/her performs it.
Wearing Ihram from the Miqat.
Spending a day at Arafat.
Spending the night in Muzdalefah.
Staying in Mena (the days of Tashreeq).
Casting at the Jamarat.
Shaving off head or shortening the hair.
The Farewell Tawaaf.
For missing one of these compulsory acts, one must offer a sacrifice of an animal, slaughtered in Haram area and distributed among the poor and the needy of the Haram. He/She mustn't eat from it and his/her Hajj is correct. It is not permissible to leave any act on purpose.
Things forbidden on both men and women:
Removing hair from any parts of one's body.
Trimming of nails.
Using perfumes (avoid scented soap).
Physical sexual contact with the spouse with or without intercourse.
Hunting (land) animals.
Contracting marriage or proposing for potential spouse, neither for you not for others.
Things forbidden on men; not women:
Wearing of sewed clothes.
Covering the man's head with anything that touches the head (umbrellas are ok.)
Things forbidden on women only:
Wearing veils with holes for the eyes (Niqab) or Burqa. The Sunnah is for her to uncover her face except if men not related to her might see her. In such case, it is obligatory for her to cover her face during Ihram and otherwise.
Whoever performs any of these violations of Ihram due to forgetters, ignorance or by compulsion, he or she is not charged with expiation except hunting, here Fidyah (Kaffarah) is compulsory.
Visiting the Prophet’s Mosque:
- It is Sunnah to go to Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah at any convenient time with the intention of visiting the Prophet’s Masjid (Mosque) and to pray in it as prayers performed in this Mosque are rewarded by a thousand folds over prayers observed in any other mosques save except the Sacred Mosque, according to Hadith of the Prophet (PBUH).
- It should be noted that there is neither Ihram or Talbiyah for visiting the prophet’s Mosque and no connection whatsoever between this visit and Hajj. If you perform Hajj without visiting the Prophet’s Mosque, your Hajj is correct.
- When you enter the Prophet’s Mosque, enter with your right foot first, saying in the name of Allah the Most Gracious the Most Merciful and evoking blessing on His Prophet (PBUH) and Ask Allah to open the gates of His mercy for you. The recommended words for entering any mosque including the Prophet’s Mosque are: “Audhu billah – ila-dheem wa wajhi hil-kareem, wa sultanihil –qadeem mina Al-shaytan Al-Rajeem. Allaahumma Iftah li abwaba rahmatik”.
Which means “I seek refuge in Allah the Al-mighty, and in His noble countenance and in His eternal power, from Satan the Rejected. Allah, open to me the doors of Your Mercy”.
- Perform two Rakats (units) of Tahiyyat Al-Masjid (the salaat of Greetings of the Mosque) If this prayer is in Rawdha (the space between the Prophet’s grave and his pulpit in his Masjid), it would be preferable or in any place in the Mosque.
- Then go to the tomb of the prophet (may peace and blessings be on him). Stand in front of it uttering politely with the low voice: “Assalamu ‘alaika, ayyuhan-nabiyyu wa rahmatu allahi wa barakatuku”, sallallahu alayka wa jazak an ummatika khair al-jaza”.
Which means: “Peace be upon you, O Prophet and the mercy and blessings of Allah, and call for the blessings of Allah on him. May Allah reward you on behalf of your Ummah (people) with the best of rewards”.
- Then step forward to your right hand to face the grave of Abu Baker and say: “Assalamu alaika ya aba Bakr Khalifata Rasul Allah Sallallahu Alayhi wa sallam warahmat Allah wabarakatuha. Radhi Allahu Anka wajazak an ummat Muhammad Khairan”.
Which means: “peace be upon you O’ Abu Baker – the successor of the prophet PBUH. May Allah reward you on behalf of Mohammad’s people with the best rewards”.
- Then you go a wee bit further to the right to face the grave of Omar Bin Al –Khataab and say: “Assalamu alaika ya Umar – Amir Al Mumineen- warahmat Allah wabarakatuhu. Radhi Allah Anka wajazak an ummat Muhammad Khairan”.
Which means: “May Allah bless upon you O’Omar- may Allah reward you on behalf of Mohammad’s people with the best rewards”.
- It is Sunnah to have (Taharah) ablution and visit Masjid of Quba and offer Salaat in it as the Prophet (PBUH) did so.
- It is also Sunnah to visit the graves of al-Baqi cemetery and the grave of Uthman (May Allah be pleased with him) and the martyrs of the Battle of Uhud and the grave of Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him); to greet them and to pray for the mercy of Allah upon them where you say: “Assalamu alaikum ahlal-diyar minil-mumineen wal-muslimeen wa inna insha-Allah bikum lalaheqoon. Nasalal –Laha Lana wa lakumul-affiyah”.
Which means : (Peace be upon you, O dweller of this place from among the believers and the Muslims, and we will in Shaa Allah join you. We ask Allah for security from the Fire of Hell for us and for you).
There are no other mosques or places in Madinah, which are to be visited. Therefore, do not burden yourself by visiting places for which there is no reward or for which, in fact, there might be some blame for doing so.
By this, the hand book has been concluded.
At the end, I ask Allah that this hand book to be of great benefit and make it with sincerity.